Categories
Laravel

Laravel Authentication vs. Authorization

Let's dive into the details:

1. Authentication vs. Authorization:

Authentication is the process of identifying who a user is, while Authorization is the process of determining what that user is allowed to do.

Authentication:

  • Primarily concerns itself with verifying the identity of a user.
  • For example, when a user logs in with their username and password, they are being authenticated.

Authorization:

  • Once a user is authenticated, authorization defines what actions they are permitted to perform.
  • For instance, after logging in, can a user edit a particular resource or view a certain page? This is where authorization comes into play.

2. Laravel's Tools for Authentication:

Laravel has various tools and packages that provide scaffolding and functionality for authentication:

  1. Laravel UI: A simple frontend scaffolding for Laravel that provides basic Bootstrap views and controllers for registration, login, password reset, etc.
    <span class="hljs-symbol">composer</span> <span class="hljs-meta">require</span> laravel/ui
    <span class="hljs-symbol">php</span> artisan ui <span class="hljs-keyword">bootstrap </span>--auth
    
  2. Laravel Breeze: A minimalist scaffolding for authentication that uses Blade and Tailwind CSS. It offers a simple starting point for basic authentication.
    <span class="hljs-symbol">composer</span> <span class="hljs-meta">require</span> laravel/<span class="hljs-keyword">breeze </span>--dev
    <span class="hljs-symbol">php</span> artisan <span class="hljs-keyword">breeze:install</span>
    
  3. Laravel Jetstream: A more advanced scaffolding that provides features like profile management, two-factor authentication, and team management. It uses Livewire or Inertia.js as its stack.
    <span class="hljs-symbol">composer</span> <span class="hljs-meta">require</span> laravel/jetstream
    <span class="hljs-symbol">php</span> artisan jetstream:install livewire
    
  4. Laravel Fortify: A backend-only package that provides the authentication logic without any frontend scaffolding. You can use it to build your custom frontend while leveraging Fortify's backend authentication logic.

3. Laravel's Tools for Authorization:

Gates and Policies are two primary mechanisms Laravel provides for Authorization.

Gates:

  • Gates are closure-based, simple authorization logic.
  • Typically defined in App\Providers\AuthServiceProvider.
  • Great for authorizing actions that aren't necessarily tied to any particular model.
    <span class="hljs-keyword">use</span> <span class="hljs-title">Illuminate</span>\<span class="hljs-title">Support</span>\<span class="hljs-title">Facades</span>\<span class="hljs-title">Gate</span>;
    
    Gate::define(<span class="hljs-string">'update-post'</span>, <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">function</span> <span class="hljs-params">($user, $post)</span> </span>{
        <span class="hljs-keyword">return</span> $user->id == $post->user_id;
    });
    

    You can check if a user is authorized using the allows or denies methods:

    <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (Gate<span class="hljs-type">::allows</span>(<span class="hljs-string">'update-post'</span>, $post)) {
        <span class="hljs-comment">// The current user can update the post...</span>
    }
    

Policies:

  • Policies are class-based and are tied to a particular model.
  • Great for authorizing actions on a model (e.g., Post).

    First, generate a policy:

    php artisan make:policy PostPolicy <span class="hljs-comment">--model=Post</span>
    

    Then, within the policy:

    <span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">function</span> <span class="hljs-title">update</span><span class="hljs-params">(User $user, Post $post)</span>
    </span>{
        <span class="hljs-keyword">return</span> $user->id === $post->user_id;
    }
    

    You can then authorize actions in controllers:

    <span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">function</span> <span class="hljs-title">edit</span><span class="hljs-params">($id)</span>
    </span>{
        $post = Post::find($id);
        <span class="hljs-keyword">$this</span>->authorize(<span class="hljs-string">'update'</span>, $post);
        <span class="hljs-comment">// ...</span>
    }
    

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *